English Proofreading & Editing


Proofreading is the most basic type of editing, which involves correcting the following:

  • Typographical and spelling errors
  • Capitalization, punctuation, and formatting errors
  • Apparent lapses in word usage (e.g., there, their, they're)
  • Other obvious errors

Copy Editing

Copyediting is more precise. It requires all the necessary fixes in proofreading, plus the following:

  • Addressing grammar and style issues using primary references and style guides
  • Correcting minor to average factual errors as well as checking data, such as figures and tables, for consistency
  • Preserving the meaning, voice, and style of the original text while maintaining consistency and correctness
  • Suggesting revisions to improve readability and eliminate ambiguity
  • Posing queries to clarify and correct any relevant issues


Rewriting involves significant revisions in the text, which include the following:

  • Restructuring the text in order to improve quality or to follow client specifications
  • Paraphrasing, rewording, and removing unnecessary terms and/or phrases
  • Making improvements in the text, usually changing the author’s original voice or style